Vitamin B1 is also known as thiamine. It is essential in energy production as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). It is very important for carbohydrate metabolism and is involved in many metabolic functions. It is necessary for the synthesis of RNA and fat. It is involved in nerve transmission in the peripheral nervous system and the brain. It is a strong antioxidant and increases the ability of vitamins E and B6 to destroy free radicals, or oxidants. It is found in brewer's yeast, peas, pork, wheat germ, macaroni, peanuts, whole grains, beans and liver. A deficiency of thiamine may result in loss of appetite, fatigue, depression, constipation, confusion, poor coordination, and nervous degeneration. The classical deficiency disease is Beri-Beri. Alcoholics often show a B1 deficiency. The RDA for thiamine is 1.2 mg. A supplemental level is 2 to 100 mg. There is no toxic dose listed for thiamine.